Cracow - afrer 1018
After the war, under the Polish People's Republic, the intellectual and academic community of KrakÃ³w was put under total political control. The universities were soon deprived of printing rights and autonomy.63 The Stalinist government ordered the construction of the country's largest steel mill in the newly created suburb of Nowa Huta.64 The creation of the giant Lenin Steelworks (now Sendzimir Steelworks owned by Mittal) sealed KrakÃ³w's transformation from a university city to an industrial centre.65 The new working class, drawn by the industrialisation of KrakÃ³w, contributed to rapid population growth.
In an effort that spanned two decades, Karol WojtyÅ‚a, cardinal archbishop of KrakÃ³w, successfully lobbied for permission to build the first churches in the new industrial suburbs.6566 In 1978, WojtyÅ‚a was elevated to the papacy as John Paul II, the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. In the same year, UNESCO placed KrakÃ³w Old Town on the first-ever list of World Heritage Sites.
Tramways of Cracow
Tourists can move around Cracow in several different ways. At small distances can simply walk, and larger sections are driven around by coach. After , you can also navigate using the trams, which have several lines and thus allow you to reach many places of city. Currently there are also light rail tunnel and a water tram ride which may be for many tourists an added attraction. A good complement to Cracow tram lines is extensive bus service, running on the system day and night, and faster and supportive. An additional motivation for the authorities cracked for expanding the public transport network is also a presence in this city of many students, including foreign.
Abou climate in Cracow
KrakÃ³w has an oceanic climate (Cfb) according to the KÃ¶ppen climate classification system, one of the easternmost localities in Europe to do so. A mere 100 km (62 mi) north-east of KrakÃ³w (east of TarnÃ³w, and north of Kielce), the January mean dips below ?3 Â°C (27 Â°F) and thus becomes continental (Dfb) in nature. The KrakÃ³w climate is also influenced by its far inland position, with significant temperature differences between seasons. Average temperatures in summer range from 18 to 19.6 Â°C (64 to 67 Â°F) and in winter from ?2.0 to ?0.6 Â°C (28 to 31 Â°F). The average annual temperature is 8.7 Â°C (48 Â°F). In summer temperatures often exceed 25 Â°C (77 Â°F), and even 30 Â°C (86 Â°F), while winter drops to ?5 Â°C (23 Â°F) at night and about 0 Â°C (32 Â°F) at day; during very cold nights the temperature can drop to ?15 Â°C (5 Â°F). Since KrakÃ³w lies near the Tatra Mountains, there are often occurrences of halny blowing (a foehn wind), causing temperatures to rise rapidly, and even in winter reach up to 20 Â°C (68 Â°F).